According to 2013 data, 2.8 million emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths occurred in the United States resulted from traumatic brain injury (TBI).
50,000 people died in 2013 as a result of TBI-related injuries.
In 2012 alone, 329,290 children in the United States were treated for sports-related injuries that included a diagnosis of concussion or TBI. The rate of TBI in children as a result of injuries during sports and recreational activities has doubled from 2001 to 2012.
Effects are usually temporary, but for some, impairment can last days, weeks, months, or even years after injury.
Symptoms may include headache, memory and attention problems, balance problems, depression, and anxiety.
A single concussion increases the risk of additional repeat concussions.
However, this number is based only on events with a loss of consciousness (LoC) and LoC is seen in only 10-20% of sports-related TBI.
Therefore, it is likely that there are more than 1.5 million sports-related concussions each year!
Recognition of concussion in athletes is challenging, because many under-report their symptoms. Better objective diagnostic measures are needed.
An estimated 900 sports-related TBI deaths occur each year.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Report to Congress on mild traumatic brain injury in the United States: steps to prevent a serious public health problem. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2003.